Steel Interchange

If you’ve ever asked yourself "why?" about something related to structural steel design or construction, Modern Steel Construction’s monthly Steel Interchange column is for you! Send your questions or comments to


July 2014
A36 plate with Fy of Grade 50 plate

Distortion of Moment End Plates

Local Buckling

Pretensioned Bolts in Moment End Plates

Flange-to-Web Weld in Plastic Section

Large-Diameter Bolts 


June 2014

Drift Limits

Grouting of Base Plates

PJP Groove Welds in Compression

Stiffened Plates in Flexure


May 2014
Not-Quite-Oversized Holes

ASTM 1085
Stability Bracing

Perform and Observe versus Periodic and Continuous

Turn-of-Nut and Tension Control

Demolition and the Code of Standard Practice 

Compression Chord Bracing

Slotted HSS Connections 


April 2014

Cold Weather Welding

Plate Girder Stiffeners

Washer Plates for Column Base Plates

Domestic or Foreign Steel?

HSS Wall Thickness

Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Rectangular Bars and Rounds

Fixity of Truss Web Members


March 2014

Stability of Beams During Erection

Fire Rating of Concrete-filled HSS Members

Prequalified Moment Connections

Strength of Anchor Rods

Weight of HSS Members

Shear Lag

Reinforcing Fillet Over CJP Groove Weld


February 2014

Thermal Cutting

Group A & B Bolts

Stability Design and the ELM 

Special Inspection

Capacity of Existing Welds

Filling Weld Access Holes   


January 2014

Plate Bending

Eccentrically Loaded Bolts

Application of Qf

K-Area Welding

Moment Connection to HSS Column

Base Plate Shear Transfer 


December 2013

This month's Steel Interchange features questions and answers that followed the 2013 SteelDay webinar "The Life of the K-Factor" by Charlie Carter, AISC vice president and chief structural engineer. 


November 2013

Collector Design

Seismic Design

Bolt Design Strengths

Stainless Steel Welding

End Plate Design

SFRS Column Base Design

Vertical Welding


October 2013

Fabrication Tolerances


Fillet Weld Directional Strength Increase

Plasma Cutting of Bolt Holes

Beam Camber

Clevis and Turnbuckle Factor of Safety


September 2013

Design of Lifting Lugs
Weld Access Hole Dimensions
NDT Requirements
Field Verification
Slip-Critical Surface Preparation
First Order Analysis Method
Coating Thickness Measurements
Reuse of High-Strength Bolts


August 2013

Erection Tolerances

Shear Lag

Shear Stud Tolerances

Single-Plate Design

Contact Bearing


July 2013
Welding Steel Deck
Vibration Design of Footbridges
Fatigue Design
Filler Metal Strength
Non-Fusable Weld Backing
Historic Cast Iron
Design of Cribbing Beams
AISC Search Utility


June 2013

Tension-Only OCBF

Single-Sided Fillet Welds
A325 Bolt Strength
Significant Load Reversal
Shear Stud Strength
SCBF Brace Slenderness
Piece Mark Appearance
Single-Angle Connection


May 2013

Concrete Cover for Steel Headed Stud Anchors

Minimum Dry Film Thickness

Connection Design Loads

Weld Tabs

Heat Straightening

Rust Guide

Stabilizer Plates


April 2013

What are a structure's important dynamic properties?

What is an acceleration response spectrum?

What is inelastic response?

What is ductility?

How does inelastic response affect a structure?


March 2013

Double-Angle Compression Members

Specifying Clevises and Pins

OCBF Work-Point Eccentricities

Welding Machine Calibration

Erection Marks

Free Edge Buckling of Gusset Plates

Preheat Requirements for Heavy Shapes


February 2013

P-Delta Effects and Second-Order Analysis

Flow-Drilling of HSS

Beam-Column Design

Prying Action in End-Plate Connections

Flange Bending

Slip-Critical Joints with Fills

Diagonal Bracing Connection Design


January 2013

Tolerances on Punched Holes
Braced Frame Stiffness
Alternative Materials
Definition of K-Area
Slots in HSS
Effective Length of X-Bracing

Blast Cleaning and Slip-Critical Connections


December 2012
How to Specify AESS
Loads on Welds
Gusset Plate Design
Field Bolt Quantities
K-Area Welding
Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes in HSS
RBS Welding


November 2012

Code of Standard Practice

Plate Flexure

HSS Connections in OMFs

Use of CMTR Values in Design

ASTM A709 Availability

Stiffness Reduction Factor

Web Sidesway Buckling


October 2012

Non-Destructive Testing of PJP Groove Welds

Field Modifications

Required Stiffness of Braces

Shop Drawing Schedule

Requirements beyond AISC 360

Groove Weld Orientation


September 2012

Erection Plan and Safety Plan

Cb Factor

Single-Angle Design

Connection Eccentricity

Seismic Moment Frame Continuity Plates

HSS Workable Flat

Bolt Hole Size Tolerance

Section Properties


August 2012

Slender Web Flexure/Shear Interaction

Bolted Connection Ductility

Bent Plate

Eccentrically Loaded Single Angles

Reusing Rivet Holes for Bolts

CJP Groove-Welded Flanges in S-Shapes


July 2012

Shear Lag

Partially Restrained Connections

WUF-W Prequalified SMF Connection

Welder Qualification

NDT Methods and Frequencies

Upper Limit on Cb

Riding the Fillet

Tee Stem Local Buckling


June 2012

Minimum Edge Distance

Block Shear with Staggered Bolt Pattern

Safety Standards

Minimum Size of Fillet Welds

Collector Design

Lp for HP Shapes

PJP Groove Weld Callout

Built-Up I-Shapes

SFRS Column Shop Splice


May 2012

Fillet Weld Terminations

Bolt Installation

Built-Up Column Design

Flange Local Bending

ANSI Roughness Criteria

HSS Connection

Extended Single-Plate Connection

Seismic Compactness


April 2012

SMF Connection at Top of Column

Shear Stud Welding

NDT Responsibility

Fatigue Design of Anchor Rods
HSS Connections

Seismic Design of Anchor Rods

Prying Action and A307 Bolts

Design of Bolted Fillers

Column Splice Design


March 2012

Shop Drawing Requirements for Welds

Moment Connection with Extended Single Plate

Extended Single Plate Connection

CVN Testing

Weld Access Hole Geometry

Eccentrically Loaded Single Angles


February 2012

Application of Qf

Weld Access Holes

Single Angles in Compression

Extended Shear Tab Design

Block Shear of Welded Single-Angle Connection

Correction of Errors

T-1 Steel


January 2012
Use of the Inflection Point as a Brace Point
Weld Access Hole Height
Beveled Gusset Corners
Moment Connection to HSS Column
Fillet Weld Design
CJP Groove Weld for Round HSS
Built-Up Shape Tolerances
SCBF Brace Slenderness

December 2011
Strength of a Tapped Hole
Fracture Critical Members
Prying Action
Stitch Plate Design
Eccentricity in Axially Loaded WT-Sections
Minimum Edge Distance
K-Factor for Gusset Buckling
Welding in the k-area

November 2011
Stiffened Seated Connection Strength
Base Plate Shear Transfer
Shape Properties
Welder Identification
Welding Electrode Storage
Fire Design of Concrete-Filled HSS Columns
Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Groups

October 2011
Eccentrically Loaded Bolts
Use of Lock Washers
Established Finish Line
Material Availability
Fixed Connection to HSS Columns
NDT per AISC 360 Chapter N
OMF Connection Design
Monorail Runway Design

September 2011
Flexural Strength of a Box Section
Double-Angle Connections
Joists in SMF Protected Zone
Workable Gage
AESS and Stiffener Corner Clips
Detailing for Steel Construction
OCBF Unbalanced Load
Multiple Washers
Long-Slotted Holes
Protected Storage of Bolts

August 2011
Design of Bracing Connections
Shear Lag
Galvanized Anchor Rods
Welding Historic Steels
Single-Angle Shear Strength
Beam Bracing
Preinstallation Verification Testing
Fillet Weld Design
Composite Beam Design
Proper Nut Orientation

July 2011
Silicon Steel
PJP Groove Weld Strength
Coatings for Faying Surfaces
OMF Connection Design
Round HSS Biaxial Bending
HSS Connection Design
Impact Loading
Single Angle LTB
Double Angle Connections

June 2011
Changes to Delegated Connection Designs
Fillet Weld to Skewed Plate
Bolting Cost Comparison Article
Maximum Fillet Weld Size
IMF Panel Zone Strength
Evaluation of Existing Structures
Existing Column Out-of-Plumb
Seismic End-Plate Width
Bracing Connection Design

May 2011
Strength of PJP Groove Welds
Weld Intersection Fatigue Category
Elliptical Hollow Sections
High-Strength Bolts
Ceramic Weld Backing

April 2011
Web Sideway Buckling
Weld Strength Calculation
Composite Beam Design
Combined Loading
Stairs and Handrails
Anchor Rods
Identifying Old Bolts
Attaching Fill Plates
Continuing Education
Column Plumbness Requirements

March 2011
Width-Thickness Limits
Shear Strength of Round HSS
Prying Action
Snug-Tight TC Bolts
Production Lots for Bolts
Plastic Design
Connection Design
Static Loads on Bolts

February 2011
Nuts and Washers for Anchor Rods
Conflicting Requirements Between Contract Documents
Paint Under Bolt Heads
Finding an AISC Member Fabricator or Erector
Plate Bending

January 2011
Protected Zones in SMF
Secondary Moments in Truss Design
Drain Holes for HSS
Steel Plate Thickness
Firm Contact
Vent Hole for Galvanizing
Heat Cambering

December 2010
End-loaded Bolted Joints
Sealing Fabrication Drawings
Accounting for Existing Web Openings
Checking Combined Loads
Bolted Joints in Seismic Applications
Drilling Through a Weld

November 2010
Plates as Beams
Weld Metal Chioce in Seismic Applications
Minimum Percentage for Composite Design
Fire Protection for HSS
Sawing Inside Corners
Tee Stem in Compression Due to Bending
Balancing Welds for Snow Load?
Strength Increase for PJP Groove Welds?
Cracking in Composite Slabs Over Girders
Paint on Faying Surfaces
Finding an AISC Member Fabricator or Erector
Axial Force and Rotational Ductility in Shear Connections

October 2010
Beveled Transitions
AESS Expectations
Reinforcing an Existing Beam
Windows Compatability
Shear Stud Spacing in Composite Design
Proprietary Connection?
Flexural Stregnth at Bolt Holes
Axial Loads in Shear Connections

September 2010
Concentrically Braced Frame Design
R = 3 System
Fillet Welding of Studs
Unbalanced Loads on OCBF
Washers for Anchor Rods
Continuity Plate Welds
Structural Steel Utilization

August 2010
Tension Control Bolts
Beam-to-Column Orientation
Moment Splice
Historic Shape
What is a snug-tightened connection?
BF in Table B3.2
1987 Moment Frame
Member Splices
Flexure of Z-Shape
Flare Groove Weld
Window Washing Davits
Partially Engaged Nuts
Torch Cutting
CB Section

July 2010
Restrained Beam
Double-Angle Compression Member
Peak Stress
ASTM A307 Bolts
Weld for Single-Plate Shear Connection
Flexure of Flat Plate
Historic Beam Designation
Rivet Replacement
Table B4.1 - Compression or Flexure?
Maximum Bolt Tension
Block Shear

June 2010
Built-Up Compression Member
Historic Shape
S-shapes in Grade 50
Beam Framing Over Column
Weld Electrodes
Drift Index - H/400
Ry for Seismic Design
Second-Order Analysis for Braced Frames
CJP Groove Weld for HSS

May 2010
Open Parking Garages
Lateral Bracing for Cantilevers
Minimum Composite Shear Connection
One-Half of Uniform Load Capacity
Historic Angle Shapes

April 2010
Bracing Connection Work Point
Minimum Fillet Weld Size
Shape Surface Area
Minimum Connection Depth
Faying Surface Preparation
Beam Connection Location
Vibration Problem
Instanteneous Center of Rotation
Prequalified Connection
AISC Seismic Design Manual Table 4.2
HSS Dimensional Tolerances

March 2010
Specification Section J10 Limit States
Increasing Composite Beam Strength
External Load on a Pretensioned Bolt
Connection Filler Plates
Shear on Box Shapes
Maximum Fillet Weld Size
Bolted Connections for High-Seismic Applications
Winter Construction
Torsional Constant of T-shape
Preheat for Welding

February 2010
Member Stiffness Reductions
ASTM A490 Bolts Subject to Tension
Delayed Construction
Sx or Zx?
HSS Properties
Bolt Entering Direction
Stiffened Extended Single-Plate Shear Connection
Column Tier Height
Tension Control Bolts
Vertical Bracing Connection

January 2010
Extended End-Plate Stiffener
Anchor Rod Tensile Strength
Tension Calibrator
Flexure of an Unequal Leg Angle
Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling
Minimum Lateral Load
Field Cutting of Steel
Temperature at Time of Erection
Plug Welds for Doubler Plates
Bearing Length - Nreq
Reduction in Area for Bolt Holes

December 2009
Reuse of Bolts
Slip-Critical Connections
UT of CJP Welds
K-Brace for OCBF System
Beam Bracing
Channel Columns
Bolt Hole Alternatives for Fit-Up
Use of Overstregnth Factor
Number of Washers

November 2009
Calculation of Weights
Document Discrepancies
Pipe Design
Allowable Stresses in 1967
Large Bolted Connections
High-Seismic Column Splice
Steel Properties at Elevated Temperatures
U-Factor in 1989 Column Tables
High-Seismic Column Splice Location

October 2009
SCBF X-Brace
Evaluation of Existing Structures
Bolt Hole Sizes
Class A and Class B Coatings
Second-Order Analysis
Panel Zone Shear Strength
Conventional Configuration Single-Plate Shear Connections
Nut Type for Anchor Rods

September 2009
HSS Steel Availability
Installation Torque
Axial Strength of Channels
Thermal Cutting
Mill Cut or Square Cut?
Puddle Welds
Anchor Rods
Increase Fillet Weld Size for Gap?
Delayed Steel Erection
Prequalified Weld Details

August 2009
Bolt Spacing for Prying Action
Shear Center
Section Modulus Relative to Angle Leg Toe in Compression
Edge Distances for Single-Plate Shear Connections
Use of the Overstrength Factor Ω0
Evaluating Existing Bracing Connections
Beam Bracing

July 2009
Width-Thickness Limits for S-Shape with Cap-Channel
Column Buckling
Countersunk Bolts
Prequalified and Qualified High-Seismic Moment Connections
HSS Seismic Connections
Design Using the 2005 Specification
Rivet Head/Shaft Diameter Relationship
Single-Plate Shear Connections to HSS
Shear Lag

June 2009
Galvanized Slip-Critical Connections
Floor Plate
Rotational Restraint at Support
Bolting for High-Seismic Applications
Nut Engagement
Hole Sizes for Galvanized Bolts
Stiffeners for an EBF Link
Tensile Strength of Anchor Rods
Punching Shear
Shear Lag Factor

May 2009
Direction of Bend
Moment Connections
ASTM A449 Threaded Rods
CJP Weld for HSS
W/D Ratios
Elevated Temperature Service
Lifting Plate
Weak-Axis Flexure of Plates
Camber Measurement
Non-Destructive Testing of CJP Welds
Eccentrically Loaded Weld Groups
Thickness Limitation for Single-Plate Shear Connection

April 2009
Cb for HSS Beams?
ASTM F1554 vs. ASTM A449 Anchor Rods
Reuse of ASTM A325 Bolts
Brace Stiffness
Fire Rating of Concrete-Filled HSS
Welding or Bolting?
Design Guide 11—Walking Speeds
Column Leveling Plate
Round HSS or Pipe?
Extended Single-Plate Shear Connection

March 2009
Single-Angle Connection Tables
Referenced Design Standards
Brace Stiffness
ASTM F1554 versus ASTM A449 Anchor Rods
Calculating Cb
The Richards Factor
Cb for HSS Beams?
Shear Connectors Used in Multi-Story Construction
Double-Angle Connection Capacity
Basic Design Value Cards

February 2009
Extended Single-Plate Shear Connections
Compactness Criteria for Angles
IMF and OMF Connections
kc Factor?
Bending Bolts?
Restrained or Unrestrained Rating?
Camber Measurement
Iyc of Compression Flange
What is rts ?

January 2009

ASD Flexural Capacity in the 2005 Specification
Steel Types
Knee-Braced Frame
Dynamic Analysis
Skewed Single-Plate Connection
Prequalified 4ES Connection
Prequalified Connection Standards
Doubler or Stiffener Plate?
Thermally Cut Holes

December 2008
ASTM A500 Rounds
A325SC Bolts?
Connecting a Cambered Truss
Welding Anchor Rods to Rebar
Base Metal/Fastener Compatibility
Beam "Sweep"
Double-Concentrated Forces

November 2008
Effective Length of Vertical Braces
Specifying End Reactions
Beam/Column Connection with Axial Compression
Single Angle in Flexure
Extended Single-Plate Shear Connections
Bracing for Cantilever Beams

October 2008
Slip-Critical Bolts?
Charpy V-Notch Requirements
Flare-Bevel Groove Welds
Lessons Learned from the AISC Seminar
Welding in the K-Area?
Turning the Bolt Head
Block Shear Strength

September 2008
KL/r Modified for Single-Angle
Flexural Capacity of Channels
Fillet Weld Strength
Anchor Rod Push-Out 
Fillet Weld for Single-Plate Shear Connection
Lp for Non-Compact Shapes

August 2008
Matching Filler Metals to Base Metals
Edge Distance Requirements
Joint Type in Seismic Applications
Effect of Flange Slenderness on Beam Capacity
Seismic Shear Loads on Components
Fit-Up Problems
Beam-Column Design
W8 Columns
Support Condition for Torsion
Selecting Seismic LFRS
Effects of High Temperature

July 2008
Stiffeners Required?
Standard Bolt Hole Size
Fillet Weld/Base Metal Thickness Correlation
Slip-Critical Faying Surfaces
V and Inverted-V Lateral Systems 
Column Splice Locations
Direct Analysis Method
Singly Symmetric Shapes

June 2008
Turn-of-Nut Method
Web Slenderness Ratio
Comparison of Historic Shapes to Current Shapes
Two-Story X-Bracing
Restrained or Unrestrained?
Shape Group Numbers
Seismic Design for Horizontal Bracing Members
Specifying Reactions

May 2008
CB Series Beams
Drilled-in Anchors
Historic Section Properties
Use of Grade 65 Steel
Pretension for TC Bolts
Remediation for Deflection Problems
One-third Stress Increase
Stiffness Reduction Factors
Single-Angle with Single-Bolt End Connection
R = 3.0 in SDC D?

April 2008
David T. Ricker
Welding to Existing Members
Lifting Beams
Double-Angle Connections
Crane Rail Tolerances
Rivet Removal

March 2008
Historic Lattice Columns
Flexural Strength Comparisons
Multiple Cranes in Runway
Evaluation of an Existing Structure
RBS Moment Connections
Backing Bar Thickness
Flexure of Single Angles
Edge Distance for Anchor-Rod Holes in Base Plates

February 2008
Nut Tightening on Anchor Rods
Combined Forces
Determining rt
Steel for High-temperature Applications
Diagonal Brace Connection
Section Properties of Historic Shape
Strain Hardening

January 2008
Connection Strengths in the 13th Edition Manual
PJP Weld Throat
Washers for Anchor Rod Installations
KL/r Modified for Single-Angle
Shoring Removal
Double Angle Connection - Table 10-1 
Recycled Content
Butt Splicing W-shape Beams
Fully Restrained or Partially Restrained
Suspended Sprinkler Loads

December 2007
Historic Lattice Columns
Evaluation of an Existing Structure
Shear Stud Requirements
Crane Runway Forces
Expansion Joint Location
Reduction for Splice Length
Seismic Retrofit of 1931 Building
Single Angle Design
Bolt Torque/Tension Equation?
Required Bolt Length

November 2007
Weak Axis Bending
Design Forces
Steel Availability & Fabricator Listings
Bending Radius
Shape Availability
Historic Steel Specifications
BF in Table 3-2
Unbraced Tee in Flexure

October 2007
Penetration into the Base Metal
Section Properties
PJP Weld Capacity
Single-Angle Bending
Slip-Critical Surface Classes
Edge Distance for Anchor Rod Holes
Historic Steel Beam Designation
Single-Plate Connections with Axial Loads

September 2007
Repairs at Protected Zones
Design Wall Thickness
65ksi Steel & LEED Certification
Slip-Critical Connection
Plate Girder Design
Maximum Size of Fillet Weld
Specification Conformance for Existing Buildings
Extended Single-Plate Shear Connections
Thread Engagement

August 2007
Elevated Slab Tolerances
OCBF and Tension-Only Bracing
Pretensioned Bearing-Type Joints
Historic Shape Data
Stiffeners and Concentrated Forces
Girt Bracing
Required Edition of a Standard
Certification Exemption

July 2007
Base Anchorage in Seismic Zone
Backing Bar Removal
Moment Strength of Bolt Group
Shear Stud Placement
Additional Capacity Needed
Bearing Length
Column Table Using Rx/Ry

June 2007
Bolt Torque
External Load Applied to Pre-Tensioned Bolt
f Factor for Shear
Low-Temperature Service
LRFD Design
Non-Sesimic Braced Frame
Recycled Steel
Seismic Braced Frame Seminar
Serviceability & Strength Considerations for SC Bolted Joints
Tension-Only Bracing
Undefined Yield Strength in Manual Listing

May 2007
Filler Metal for High-Seismic Applications
Heat-Straightening Columns
Holes in Base Plates
Iy and J for Double-Angles
Knifed Connection
SCBF Brace Reinforcement
Slip-Critical Bolt Values
Slip-Critical Bolts Used in Shear Tabs

April 2007

Base Plate Bending
Bolt Values
Column Splice Design
Composite Steel Beam
Single-Plate Shear Connections
Torsional Unbraced Length
Wind Connections in Seismic Areas

March 2007
ASTM F1554 Grade 36 vs. ASTM A36
End Panel
Flare Bevel Groove Welds in Tension and Compression
Historic Bolt & Rivet Strengths
Technical Bulletin No.3
What is the Difference Between Rt and Rts?
WT in Flexure

February 2007
1964 Drawings
AISC Specification Seminar
Backing Bar Requirements
Block Shear
Braced Frame Seismic Connections
Cantilever Framing
Lally Columns?
Slotted-Hole Dimensions
Tee Stem in Flexural Compression

January 2007
Galvanizing High-Strength Steel
High-Strength Bolts in 1956
Historic Non-ASTM Shapes
HSS Slot Tolerance (updated from October 2006)
Pile Shape?
Slip-Critical Bolts?
Steel Availability
Welding Carbon Steel to Stainless Steel

December 2006
Deep Column Section for SMF
Design Stress for Compression Members
Minimum Connections
Section Properties of Back-to-Back Channels
Thermal Cutting
Weld All Around?
Welding to 65ksi Steel
Workable Gage

November 2006
Floor Plate Design
Hooked or Headed Anchor Rod Embedment?
Limit States for HSS Flexural Members
Nominal or Tensile Stress Bolt Area?
Shop Camber - Field Measurement Conflict?
Use of "Actual" Tested Yield Strength for Design

October 2006
Edge Distance for Base Plate Hole
AISC Series B-3 Connection
Bolt Installation Method
No W8 Columns?
Non-Building Structure
Shear Tabs on HSS
Tube Slot Tolerance
Wireless Interference

September 2006
Beam Splice in Protected Zone
Bolt Hole Sizes
Column Base Anchorage
Historic Shape Information
Pipe or Tube?
Preheat Requirements
WUF-W Connections for Special Moment Frames

August 2006

100-Year-Old Steel
Bent Anchor Rods
Grade 50 Angle Availability
Metric Bolts
Seismic Requirements for Composite SLRS
Seismically Braced Frame
Shear Tab Edge Distance

July 2006
1945 Steel
Fireproofing HSS Beams
Minimum Fillet Weld Size
No More Group Numbers?
Thermal Cutting
Using OCBF in SDC D
Weight of Paper

June 2006
Combined Loads on Anchor Rods
Cruciform Columns and RBS
Reduced Coefficient of Slip Resistance
Rod vs. Nut Strength
Shear Connection Capacities
Strength of Truss Connections

May 2006

Anchor Rod Embedment Detail
Axial Compression Capacity in March 2006 Steel Interchange
Bolt Bearing Resistance
Determining Iz for Single Angles
Historic Specification Issue Dates
Overstrength Requirement for Seismic Design of Diaphragms

April 2006
Allowable Stress for Anchor Rods
Bracing of Double Angle Diagonal
Column-Beam Moment Ratio
Cruciform Column in SMRF Design
Principal Axes Properties
Seismic Response Modification Coefficient (R-factor)
Strong Axis Bending of a Flat Plate

March 2006
1925 Steel Rivets
Axial Compression Capacity
Bolt Length
Cb Factor for Frames Braced Against Joint Translation
Cambered Beam Connection
Demand Critical Welds OMF
HSS in 50 ksi Material
Load Tests
Seismic Prequalified Connections

February 2006
Calibrated Wrench Pretensioning
Cantilevered Beam Stability Bracing
Cleaning Steel for Fireproofing
Contract Addenda
Seismic Brace-to-Gusset Plate Offset
Weld Interactions

January 2006
Bent Anchor Rods
Charpy V-notch Test Results
Flame-Cut Bolt Holes/Residual Stress
Modulus of Rigidity for HSS
Short Anchor Rods
Slot Dimensions
Slotted Hole Length
Welding HSS

December 2005
Composite Filled HSS
Seismic Category
Shear on Anchor Rods
Steel Plate Shear Walls
Trial Size for Composite Beam
Welding to Old Steel

November 2005
Backing Bar Removal
Base Plate Minimum Edge Distance
Fatigue Based on Stress Calculation
Mill and Fabrication Tolerances
Seismic Provisions and Collector Design
Weld Access Hole Requirements
Welding to Sheared Edges

October 2005
Beam Size
Drawings Conflict
Gusset Plate Yield Line (from July 2005)
Repairing Bent Anchor Rods
Shop and Erection Drawings
Translating Between ASD and LRFD

September 2005
Bolt Installation Using Hand Wrenches
Column Splice Erection Tolerances
Hot-Dip Galvanizing and Vent Holes
Conduit and Composite Slabs
Seismic End-Plate Moment Connection
Shear on Anchor Rods
Structural Steel Inspection

August 2005

Continuous vs. Intermittent Welds
Maximum Spacing
Seismic Provisions: Application of Ry
Splices and CVN Toughness
Weak-Axis Moment Connection Plates
What are kdetailing and kdesign Values?

July 2005
Anchor Embedment Length
Anchor Rod Grades
Bending of Tee Sections
Factors for Base Plates
Gusset Plate Yield Line
Use of Shims

June 2005
Continuity Plates for IMF
Design of HSS Base Plates
Fire Resistance of Concrete-Filled HSS Columns 
Minimum Percentage of Composite
Punching Shear

May 2005
Bolted End Plate Moment Connections
Continuous Versus Intermittent Weld
Erection Plan
IMF/Pre-qualified Moment Connections
New ASD/LRFD Combined AISC Code
Welded Moment Connections
Welder Qualifications

April 2005
Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel
Balanced Welds
HP Shapes
Moment Connections to HSS Columns
One-Third Stress Increase
Shop Inspection
Stud Weld Substitution for Deck Weld
Welding ASTM A992 Steel

March 2005
Design of Cantilever Beams
Expansion Joints Required for Temperature
Minimum Flange Thickness for Welding Studs
Tightening Tension Control Bolts

February 2005
Bottom Flange Bending Capacity
Edge Distance and Load Direction
Preheat & Stud Welding
Rehabilitation of ASTM
Single-Angle Shear Connection Eccentricity

January 2005
Base Plate Edge Distances
Field Cutting of Openings
Older Steel Grades
Rotational Ductility of Shear Connections
Wind Connections

December 2004
All-Welded Single-Plate Shear Connection
Anchor Rods Under Combined Tension & Shear
Narrow Columns with Continuity Plates 
Slender WT Stem in Flexural Compression
Welding to Galvanized Steel

November 2004
Composite HSS Column-Minimum Wall Thickness
Grout Packs & Base Plates
Notches in Wide-Flange Beams
OHSA & Double Connections
Preheat & Stud Welding
Seismic Provisions & Bolted Joints

October 2004
Beam Stability under Reverse Loading
Fillet Weld Design Strength Increase
HSS Connection Economy
Knee Braces on Crane Support Columns
Prequalified Shop Welding
Pretensioning Low-Strength Anchor Rods
Reduction in Stud Shear Connection Design Strength

September 2004
Anchor Rods Under Cyclic Loads
ASTM A490 Bolts and Fatigue Loads
Fillet Weld Terminations
Rehabilitation of ASTM A9 Steel and Rivets

August 2004
Column Splice Gaps
Cracks Over Composite Beams
Panel-Zone Web Sheer
Sloped Column Continuity Plates
Specifying Connection Design Forces
Weak-Axis Lateral-Torsional Buckling

July 2004
Backing Bar Removal
Filling Weld Access Holes
Grouting Base Plates
Seperators in Double Angle Struts
Sinlge Angle Under Axial Load and Bending
Unbraced Length of Cantilever

June 2004
Fillet Weld Size Limitations
Odd-Sized Holes
Paint on Faying Surfaces
Paint Under Nuts and Bolt Heads
Repairing Rough Edges
Roughness Limitations
Selecting Paint Systems
Weld Symbols
When To Paint

May 2004
Fatigue and Wind
Hole Spacing
Stitching Requirements
Stub Girder Construction
Threaded Coupler for Anchor Rods
Cambered Beam Connections

April 2004
Anchor Rods and Load Path
Bolt Tests
HSS and Single-Plate Shear Connections
OCBF Lacking Diaphragm Action
Re-Entrant Corners
Weak-Axis Moment Connections

March 2004
Buckling Restraint
Developing Welded Elements
Dimension Dilemma
Gages Gone
Seeing is Believing
Sleeve Nuts
Types of Bolts
Weld Metal Myth

February 2004
ASTM A325/A490 Bolts
Bearing Strength
HSS Seismic Braces
Seal Welds
Sufficient Thread Engagement
Welding Anchor Rods

January 2004
Blast Effects
Weathering Steel

December 2003
Fatigue Stress Range
Making Fillet Welds
Quality of Structural Drawings
T-Stub Moment Connection

November 2003
Changes in R Values
Fire Temperatures
Industry Standards
Spray-Applied Fire Protection
Steel After Fire

October 2003
ASD and Seismic Provisions
Bearing Strength
Bolts in Extended-End Plate Connections
Single-Angle Geometric Properties
Single-Plate Shear Connections 
Threads in Tension Rods

September 2003
Curved Shapes
Pretensioning Anchor Rods
Referencing Specifications
Repairing Welds

August 2003
Fillet Weld Strength
Hot-Dipped Galvanized Bolts
Second-Order Effects
Shear Stud Reduction Factor
Unauthorized Shop Splices
Unpainted Steel

July 2003
ASTM A572 Grade 50 and ASTM A992
Bending Limits
Critical Buckling Stress
Designing For Large Cope Depths
Expansion Anchors and Washers
Height-Thickness Ratios
LEED Certification

June 2003
Flame Cut Holes
HSS Design Wall Thickness
Maximum Size of Fillet Welds
PR Connections
Slip Factor of Galvanized Steel
Tension-Field Action
Torque and Bolt Pretension
Torsion and ASD

May 2003
"Cold Galvanizing"
Abrasion Resistance of Galvanized Coating
Differences in Galvanized Steel Appearances
Environmental Impact of Zinc Coatings
G90 and A60 Coatings
Galvanized Steel Exposure Temperatures
Galvanized Steel in Contact with Other Metals
Galvanizing Large Articles
Hot-Dip Galvanized vs. Zinc-Plated Fasteners
Hot-Dip Galvanizing After Fabrication vs. Continuous Hot-Galvanized Sheet
How Does Galvanizing Protect Steel?
Painting Galvanized Steel
Performance of Galvanized Steel in Permanent Water Immersion
Salt Spray Tests for Galvanized Steel
Specifications For Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel
Specifying Zinc Amounts on Steel
Steps of the Galvanizing Process
Wet Storage Stains on Galvanized Steel

April 2003
Bolt Hole Sizes
Effective Length Factor
HSS Slotted Gusset Plate
Prying Action of Tees and Double-Angles
Seismic Force Reduction Factor
Weld Access Holes

March 2003
ASTM A36, A572, and A992
Height Limitations in OMFs
HSS Members in Seismic Design
OCBFs in Low Buildings
Ordinary and Intermediate Moment Frames
Sizing Washers

February 2003

Avoiding Column Continuity Plates
Column Erection Tolerances
Composite Floor Penetrations
Net Area Calculation
New ASTM Standards and Old AISC Specifications
Order of Precedence
Seismic Column Splices
Whitmore Section

January 2003

Bolted Hanger-Type Connections
Prying Action

November 2002
Extended End-Plate Connections
Hollow Structural Sections and Pipes

October 2002
Consideration of Connection Eccentricity
Shop and Erection Drawing Standard
Single-Plate Shear Connection
Tees Under Flexure
Thickness of Gusset Plate for Fillet Welds
Thread Engagement

September 2002
Circular Base Plate Design
Moment Frame/Seismic
PR Connections
Pretensioning Anchor Rods
Welding Through Paint

August 2002
Anchor Rods
Built-Up Shapes
Shear Capacity of Bolts
Workable Gages

July 2002
Material Specifications
Shape-Fillet Encroachment
Slip-Critical Joint Surface Preparation
Steel Deck Details
X-Bracing Design

June 2002
Restrained Condition
Shear Lag
Square Tubular Section Arches

May 2002
Bolt Orientation
Bolted Connection Design
Bottom Flange Plate
Gusset Plate Buckling
Lacing Column Design
Masonry Shelf Angles

April 2002
Backing Bars
Seismic Design
Seismic Design of Base Plates

March 2002
A325 and A490 Bolts
Cambering Equipment
Shear Tabs
Traceability and Identification
Web Panel-Zone Shear

February 2002
Curved Members

December 2001
Bolt Projection Beyond Nut
Flexure in AISC ASD Specification
Slip-Critical Connections

November 2001
Biaxial Bending in Beams
IBC 2000 and AISC Seismic Provisions
Welding Through Metal Deck

October 2001
Lateral Drift with Brick Veneer or Concrete Masonry
Welding on Existing Members

September 2001
Anchor Rods too Short
Building Lines
Crane Design
Curved Structural Members
Stiffener Requirements

August 2001
1929 Properties
A36 Plate
Braced Frames and 1997 UBC
Cambering Galvanized Members
Column Splices
Galvanizing Limits
Old Beam Sizes
Roof Deck Providing Bracing
Single Plate Connections

July 2001
Beam Camber
Origin of K-factors for Columns

June 2001
Bolt Shear/Tension Interaction
Semi-Rigid Connections
Steel Sheet Piling
Tensile Area for Threaded Fasteners
Welding Channels to Wide-Flange Beams

May 2001
Lateral Support for Beams
Notional Loads
Slip-Critical Galvanized Surface Preparation
Slotted HSS Connections
Welding Older Steel

April 2001
OSHA Rules for Erection
Shelf-Angle Design
Uniform Force Method

March 2001
Second Order Analysis
Snug-tightened Bolts Make Sense
Special Truss Moment Frames
Surface Finishes
Technical Note: Specifying Anchor Bolts

February 2001
Bent Clip Plates for Connections
Heat Straightening vs. Mechanical Realignment
Load Transfer in Bolted Connections
Technical Note: ASTM A992 now costs less than A36 for W-shapes
Use of "Jam" Nuts

January 2001
Checking Camber in the Field
Economical Composite Beam Design
Seismic Requirements for Simple Buildings
When to Use ASTM A449 Bolts

December 2000
Seismic Connections
Single Angles
Technical Note: Pipe vs. Round HSS
Web Openings

November 2000
AASHTO Bearing Stiffeners
Welding Studs Through Paint

October 2000
Bracket Plates
Bridge Fillets and Haunches
Minimum Connection Depth

September 2000
Drafting Standards
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
Holes for Anchor Rods
HSS Properties
HSS Through-Plate Connections
Re-Use of Shop Drawings
Twist-Off Bolts

August 2000
HSS Cap Plates & Drainage Holes

July 2000
Bolts with Cyclic Loads
Exposed Steel
Floor Levelness
Grade 50

June 2000
Beam Gages
Cold Galvanizing
Seismic Overstrength Factors
Truss Analysis

May 2000
Composite Beam Deflections
Cope Radii
Crane Rails
Monorail Design
SAE Bolts
WT Shapes

April 2000
Double Angle Connections

March 2000
"Safety" Connections
Expansion Joints

February 2000
Butt Splices
Single Plate Connections

January 2000
Seismic Connections
Temperature Differentials During Erection
Welding Through Paint

December 1999
Bottom Flange Bending Capacity
Flame-Cut Bolt Holes

November 1999
Angles and Channels in 50 ksi Steel
Temporary Structures
Using A940 Bolts in Slotted or Oversized Holes

October 1999
Cb Applied to Moment Frames With Pin Supports
Coatings on Connection Faying Surfaces
Compression Element Restraint Coefficient
Plug Welding to Anchor Rods
Sidesway Behavior of Frame
Simple Shear Tabs & Fillet Welds

September 1999
Erection Clearance & Slip Critical Connections
Short Slots in Double Angle Connections
1/3 Stress Increase

August 1999
Short Shear Studs
Threaded Connectors in Tension

July 1999
"Banging Bolts"
Properties for HSS Sections
Stair Stringers & Stiffener Plates
Welding Partially Restrained Connections

June 1999
Column Base Plate Shear Lugs
Crane Rails
Drilled Holes for Anchor Bolts
Guidelines for Bent Anchor Rods
Slenderness Ratio

April 1999
Lateral Support for Beams
Weathering Steel

March 1999
Concrete Cover of Shear Stud
Construction Joints
Design Strengths for Clevises

February 1999
Bolt Hole Sizes
Definiton of "Mill to Bear"
Extended Shear Tabs
Materials and Design Properties in Older Structures
NDE Inspection
Non-Destructive Examination
OSHA Requirements for Column Base Plates
Welding to A7 and/or A9 Steel

December 1998
Friction Coefficients
Stiffening End-Plate Moment Connections
Weak Axis Effective Length

November 1998
Base Plate Grouting
Bolts in Extended End-Plate Moment Connections
Machine Bolts
Stiffener Member for Bending Moment

October 1998
Through Truss Pedestrian Walkway
Wind Load Applications: Enclosed vs. Partially Enclosed

September 1998
Oversized Bolt Holes
Repair Code for Steel Beams

August 1998
Bending Members
Specific Load Combination

July 1998
Rivet Removal

June 1998
Steel Deck Diaphram on Gabled Roof

May 1998
Pratt Truss with Odd Number of Panels
Welding of Clip Angles to Web of Beams that have Wide Flanges

Selecting Field Splice Locations

April 1998
Composite Action in Encased Beams
Full Contact Joints
Long-Span Plate Girder
Seismic Provisions vs. LRFD Specification
Whitmore Section

March 1998
OSHA Requirements for Tie Off Points
Pratt Truss
Unbraced Length of Column

February 1998

Tolerance for Vertical and Horizontal Alignment of Crane Rail in Mill Type Building

Checking Tube Wall for Failure
Designing Built-Up Section for Moving Concentrated Loads
Throat Thickness of Fillet Welds


January 1998

Lifting Beam


December 1997
End-Plate Connections
Minimum Length of Thread on Structural Bolts

November 1997
Stiffener Welded to Flat Plate

October 1997
Allowable Stress for Steel Tank Wall
Load Factors for Pre-Packaged Equipment
St. Venant and Warping Torsion in Monorails

September 1997
Lifting Beams
Mig Wire Size for E70XX Specification
Tolerance of Crane Rail
Weld or Bolt First?
Welded Double Angle Connection Design

August 1997
A325 vs. A490 Bolts
Allowable Stress in Lintels
Design for Square Bins and Hoppers
High-Strength Bolts and Welds
Minimum Length of Thread on Bolts
Special Tolerances for Cladding
Weathering Steel High Strength Bolts

July 1997
Cambered vs. Rolled Beams

June 1997
Design Basis for Seat Angles
Designing a Hole for Piping  Equivalent Radius of Gyration
In-Plane Effective Length Factor
Stepped Column Design

May 1997
Bearing vs. Slip-Critical Connections
Bolted Connections in Tension
Load Capacity for Lifting Beam With No Lateral Support
Unbraced Trolley Beam
Warping Torsion Stresses


August 1997


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